Links to primary texts for philosophy of religion 

Below you will find links to online versions of many of the texts listed in the AQA philosophy anthology. Not all the anthology items can be found for free online.


Anselm, Proslogium, Chapters II–IV

Aquinas, T Summa Theologica, Part 1, Question 25, Article 3 (Either read online or download PDF)

Aquinas, T Summa Theologica, Part 1, Question 2, Article 3 (Either read online or download PDF)

Ayer, AJ (1973/1991), The Central Questions of Philosophy, London, Penguin, 22–29

Ayer, AJ (1946), Language, Truth and Logic, 2nd Edition, New York, Dover, (esp. Chapters 1 and 6)

Descartes, R (1641), Meditations on First Philosophy, 3 and 5

Flew, A, RM Hare and Basil Mitchell (1955) ‘Theology and Falsification’ in New Essays in Philosophical Theology, edited by Antony Flew and Alasdair MacIntyre, London, SMC Press Ltd, 96–105

Gaunilo, from the appendix to St Anselm’s Proslogium

Hick, J (1966/1978), Evil and the God of Love, New York, Harper and Row, (revised edition). Chapters 13–17 are relevant, with the core argument in Chapter 13.

Hick, J (1960), ‘Theology and verification’, Theology Today 17

Hume, D (1779), Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Parts II, V, VIII and IX

Hume, D (1748), An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Section 11

Kant, I (1781), Critique of Pure Reason, Second Division (Transcendental Dialectic), Book II, Ch. 3, Section IV Of the impossibility of an ontological proof of the existence of God

Kenny, A (1969), ‘Divine foreknowledge and human freedom’ in  Aquinas: a Collection of Critical Essays 1976, University of Notre Dame Press.

Kretzmann, N (1966), ‘Omniscience and immutability’, The Journal of Philosophy, 63, 409–421

Mackie, JL (1955), ‘Evil and Omnipotence’, Mind, 64 (254), 200–212

Malcolm, N (1960), ‘Anselm’s ontological arguments’, The Philosophical Review, 69, 41–62

Mavrodes, GI (1963), ‘Some puzzles concerning omnipotence’, The Philosophical Review,72, 221–223

Paley, W (1802/2008), Natural Theology, OUP, Chapters 1, 2 and 5

Plantinga, A (1975), God, Freedom, and Evil: Essays in Philosophy, George Allen & Unwin, 7–64 and 85–112

Plato, Euthyphro

Swinburne, RG (1968), ‘The Argument from Design’,  Philosophy, 43 (165), 199–212

Wade Savage, C (1967), ‘The Paradox of the Stone’, The Philosophical Review, 76, 74–79